Exhaustive exercise increases ROS production, leading to muscle fiber damage, which eventually results in muscle fatigue. Tartaric Acid is an antioxidant that protect cells from ROS-induced oxidative stress.
Leucine is a branched-chain amino acid that is critical for protein synthesis and muscle repair. It may decrease muscle soreness by reducing damage in exercised muscles and may also help reduce exercise-induced fatigue, can help prevent muscle wasting or breakdown.
Exhaustive exercise increases ROS production, leading to muscle fiber damage, which eventually results in muscle fatigue. Citric Acid is an antioxidant that protect cells from ROS-induced oxidative stress.
Lysine plays major roles in protein synthesis, hormone and enzyme production and the absorption of calcium. It’s also important for energy production, immune function and the production of collagen and elastin
Isoleucine is involved in muscle metabolism and is heavily concentrated in muscle tissue. It may decrease muscle soreness by reducing damage in exercised muscles and may also help reduce exercise-induced fatigue, can help prevent muscle wasting or breakdown. It’s also important for immune function, hemoglobin production and energy regulation.
Valine helps stimulate muscle growth and regeneration and is involved in energy production. It may decrease muscle soreness by reducing damage in exercised muscles and may also help reduce exercise-induced fatigue, can help prevent muscle wasting or breakdown.
Threonine is very important for the synthesis and maintenance of proteins in the body and plays a significant role as an essential component of mucin in gut health. After absorption of threonine, it is used for gut protein synthesis and protects the gut from anti-nutritional factors and pathogens
Phenylalanine is a precursor for the neurotransmitters tyrosine, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. It plays an integral role in protein synthesis. The main mechanism for the stimulation of fat oxidation following Phe administration may be via glucagon secretion. Glucagon is a key hormone involved in fat catabolism during exercise.
Potassium is a major intracellular cation, regulates water balance, critical for neurotransmission, regulates muscle contraction, plays crucial role in heart function and critical for regulating blood pressure and blood pH.
“Bodily hydration is one of the best indicators of fitness in athletes, and sweat rates are often a limiting factor for performance. High sweat rates can result in dehydration, loss of fluid, electrolytes, muscle cramps, and fatigue. The intensity of performance and sweat rate are the determining factors to electrolyte imbalance. The main electrolytes include sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride.
Sodium, which is an osmotically active cation, is one of the most important electrolytes in the extracellular fluid, responsible for maintaining the extracellular fluid volume, and also for regulation of the membrane potential of cells. Sodium is exchanged along with potassium across cell membranes as part of active transport, aids in fluid retention, assists in transmission of nerve impulses, regulates osmotic pressure and is involved in muscle contraction
Chloride is an extracellular anion, regulates osmotic pressure, regulates body fluids, regulates electrolyte balance and regulates acid-base status.”
Arginine supplementation may be theorized to be ergogenic because it is a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, a potent endogenous vasodilator that may benefit blood flow and endurance capacity.
L-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity, given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. It enhances blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function.
L-Citrulline is present in the body and is a potent endogenous precursor of L-arginine, which is a substrate for NO synthase (NOS). NO is a potent endogenous vasodilator that may benefit blood flow and endurance capacity. The importance of L-citrulline as an ergogenic support derives from the fact that L-citrulline is not subject to pre-systemic elimination and, consequently, could be a more efficient way to elevate extracellular levels of L-arginine by itself. NO is a potential modulator of blood flow, muscle energy metabolism, and mitochondrial respiration during exercise
It is needed to maintain proper nitrogen balance and is a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates your appetite, sleep and mood. Tryptophan (TRYP), is a precursor for serotonin, a brain neurotransmitter theorized to suppress pain. Free tryptophan (fTRYP) enters the brain cells to form serotonin. Thus, tryptophan supplementation has been used to increase serotonin production in attempts to increase tolerance to pain during intense exercise
Methionine plays an important role in metabolism and detoxification. It’s also necessary for tissue growth and the absorption of zinc and selenium, minerals that are vital to health. This amino acid participates in protein synthesis, methylation reaction of DNA, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and acts as glutathione (GSH) precursor – a tripeptide, which decreases ROS and thus protects cells from oxidative stress
Carnosine is an abundant histidine-containing dipeptide in human skeletal muscle and is a protein building block. Additionally is used to produce histamine, a neurotransmitter that is vital to immune response, digestion, sexual function and sleep-wake cycles. It’s critical for maintaining the myelin sheath, a protective barrier that surrounds nerve cells
Glutathione supplementation decreased plasma fatty acids and suppressed the exercise-induced reduction in intermuscular pH. Glutathione supplementation also resulted in elevated concentrations of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. These observations suggest that glutathione induces aerobic metabolism and improves an acidic environment in skeletal muscle during exercise by elevating PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) has been demonstrated as a key transcriptional co-activator, providing a mechanistic insight into nuclear regulatory pathways in the biogenesis of mitochondria in skeletal muscle), which would prevent exercise-induced fatigue. Glutathione is a master antioxidant, thus can help protection against oxidative stress to muscle cells.