Bodily hydration is one of the best indicators of fitness in athletes, and sweat rates are often a limiting factor for performance. High sweat rates can result in dehydration, loss of fluid, electrolytes, muscle cramps, and fatigue. The intensity of performance and sweat rate are the determining factors to electrolyte imbalance. The main electrolytes include sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride.
Sodium, which is an osmotically active cation, is one of the most important electrolytes in the extracellular fluid, responsible for maintaining the extracellular fluid volume, and also for regulation of the membrane potential of cells. Sodium is exchanged along with potassium across cell membranes as part of active transport, aids in fluid retention, assists in transmission of nerve impulses, regulates osmotic pressure and is involved in muscle contraction
Chloride is an extracellular anion, regulates osmotic pressure, regulates body fluids, regulates electrolyte balance and regulates acid-base status.
Potassium is a major intracellular cation, regulates water balance, critical for neurotransmission, regulates muscle contraction, plays crucial role in heart function and critical for regulating blood pressure and blood pH.
Magnesium is an intracellular cation, regulates energy production, involved in ATP metabolism, reduces neuromuscular excitability, helps reduce muscle cramps, essential for a regular heartbeat and cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, proper neurological functioning, and neurotransmitter release. Magnesium is required for muscles to relax after contraction.
Maltodextrin has a higher Glycemic Index (GI) than table sugar so delivers an instant energy spike, followed by an equally sudden energy crash, Carbohydrate ingestion with aerobic-based exercise has been investigated over the past century (Hearris et al., 2018). Studies have shown that carbohydrate consumption can increase time to exhaustion and delay fatigue in extended aerobic exercise.
Vitamin D is important in bone health, but recent research also points out its essential role in extraskeletal functions, including skeletal muscle growth, immune and cardiopulmonary functions and inflammatory modulation, which influence athletic performance. Vitamin D can also interact with extraskeletal tissues to modulate injury recovery and also influence the risk of infection. Maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D is important to have the possible positive influence supplementation has on immune and musculoskeletal functions in athletes, benefiting their performance and preventing future injuries.